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Besides providing a thorough overview of advances in the concept of identity in Translation Studies, the book brings tog. English s  Year Essays exploring the effect of time on translation studies This volume brings together ten essays on the relation betwee. A provocative critique of the American obsession with diversity argues that, by celebrating "difference," we a. Since its publication inGender Trouble has become one of the key works of contemporary feminist theory, and an es. One of the most talked-about scholarly works of the past fifty years, Judith Butler's Gender Trouble is as celebrat.
How did Wagner's experiences in Paris influence his works and social character? And how does his sometime desire fo. This volume represents the first large-scale effort to address topics of translation in Russian contexts across the disc. Taiwan is one of the great paradoxes of the international order. A place with its own flag, currency, government and mil. Cambridge Scholars Publisher. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Chapter Two My special thanks goes to the keynote speaker Michael Cronin whose stimulating work inspired the topic of the conference. I am also thankful to Tsudoi Masuda for the picture on the cover. A more or less steady rise in the percentage of such papers can be observed since and in the past few years, sincenearly fifteen per cent of articles have been explicitly dealing in one way or another with identity.
This sudden and rapid advance might seem surprising at first, but when we consider that to a certain extent, translation is always an act of renaming and renaming is—in return—bestowing identity, it is almost natural. When it comes to names of people sgeopolitical units, social strata, historical periods, and similar entities, Chat with older women Kolompos relationships manifested through the transformation of the viewpoint in translation become markedly visible.
This direct connection of identity and translation is surely one of the underlying reasons why, in the last two decades and a half, the Chat with older women Kolompos of TS in the issue of identity has been on the rise. Another one is the popularity of the concept of identity in social life and humanities and social sciences in general. A deeper consideration of these international or transnational position-takings by TS and other disciplines would not have been possible without investigations into language and power and the gap between the and the world that allowed thinkers to move away from essentialism and positivism.
Overcoming essentialism and structuralism is a prerequisite in creating the present conceptualisations of translation between languages or different media. And the proper name. But if one wishes to keep the relation of language to vision open, if one wishes to treat their incompatibility as a starting-point for speech. It is perhaps through the medium of this grey, anonymous language. An important factor that has made the concept of identity interesting for TS in the past two-and-a-half decades is the internal development of the discipline—the so-called cultural turn Snell-Hornby of the s which opened TS to a more explicit and intense interest in culture, society, politics, and individuals involved in the process.
Before introducing individual contributions, I will give a short selective overview of the relationship of identity and TS. In the following section I will outline several such clusters with an accent on their development in the late s and s until they became established in the discipline. What I wish to do instead is to give the papers included in the volume their grounding in the developments of the idea so that the vast Translation and Identity 3 scope of the topic of identity and translation makes clearer sense with respect to the composition of the volume. It must also be noted that not all the papers in this publication start from the same theoretical basis and thus reflect not only the individual identities of the researchers, but also—to a certain extent—the specific identity of the scope of TS in individual regions Central Europe [Slovakia], Eastern Europe [Ukraine], Northern Europe [Latvia], and Western Europe [Ireland].
In this sense, identity has a long history which goes back to ancient philosophy Izenberg 9. The main problem of identity and translation in this respect was determining the necessary degree of qualitative sameness of the source and target texts with variations in compared units and their qualities. In his detailed discussion of interlingual identity, developed inFrawley comes to the conclusion that identity may be granted across linguistic codes, but this identity is actually useless in translation. We must purge ourselves of this rampant notion that identity somehow saves translation.
The true interest in translation 4 Introduction stems from the fact that recodification is an uncertain act, and the uncertainty from the inevitable structural mismatch of the codes, though single semiotic elements may be identical. The act of translation involves a complicated juggling of codes, a healthy disregard for identity, and an uncertain leap into the production of a new code and new information.
In the following decades, the view of translation as production and performance gained a greater explanatory power and the desire for the original in TS was deconstructed together with the notion of the allpreceding original. The historical gendered thinking on translation and its metaphors was also challenged Chamberlain and feminist deconstruction of identity relativized identity as a categorising element as such: Gender and translation participate in this economy of contamination, unable to maintain a separation of same and different, original and copy.
This is the turning of the troping of metonymy Instead of an exchange of s constituting the identity of differing groups, there is only the change of s in a combinatory of provisional groupings that announces the reign of the ifier. Reading from one ifier to another, connecting one ifier with another Translating with the ifier, as it is contaminated by another while past and future configurations commingle, thickening the web of relations Identity in this sense seemed no longer productive for conceptualising entities TS was interested in.
Some of the ideas currently discussed in papers concerned with cultural identity had been, in different forms, present in earlier reflections on translating— especially with respect to creation and establishment of languages and political or national units—e. Identity in the contemporary sense of the word, i. With the cultural turn, geopolitical redefinitions of borders, secondwave feminism, and increased geographical mobility and information flow, collective identities ceased to be taken for granted.
Gender was introduced as a category of analysis Scott and gender identity also started to be addressed from the TS point of view. Similarly, one of the principal concerns of Translation Studies in the s was the need. Bassnett 64 Translation and Identity 7 TS conceptualisations of identity in the context of gender were often inspired by feminist translation practices or went hand in hand with them this especially concerns Canadian feminist translations published since the late s.
Jean Delislealso drawing on feminist translation practice in Canada, described feminist translation as weaving the identity of a woman into the language of translation There are no a priori characteristics which would make women either more or less competent at their task. Where identity enters into play is the point at which the translator transforms the fact of gender into a social or literary project.
Some of these issues will be discussed in my section on identity of the translator below. The role translation played in the history of creating nation-states was touched on by Even-Zohar and a historical TS perspective was also taken in Translators through Historyedited by Jean Delisle and Judith Woodsworth in which linguistic, ethnic, cultural, national, and minority identities were addressed in a retrospective look translations of the Bible are said to have helped preserve ethnic identities; the way in which minority languages serve as a source of identity; the role translation played in creating national identities.
Cultural especially national and minority vs. Her research focused on the way translators saw the aim of their activity. She concluded that by translating works that have enjoyed prestige, authority or simply wide distribution in the source culture, the translator confers credibility on the target language text and the target language itself.
The motivation for translating, beyond personal affinities, is political. Even a mere attempt to assemble a bibliography of the post volumes and papers on the topic would surpass the scope of this introduction. An interesting parallel between the author and the translator and the patriarchal views of the relationship between men and women was drawn by Lori Chamberlain Thus, though obviously both men and women engage in translation, the binary logic.
Becoming a translator came to be seen as socialisation Toury and acquiring a specialised habitus in Bourdieusian sense Gounavic ; Hermans ; Simeoni In more recent years, translators, their identity and professional status and the identity of translation as a process have been more and more often analysed in the light of fast-evolving technology and the high demand for commercial translation.
The dehumanizing effect of instrumentalisation of language Chat with older women Kolompos translation and the cyborg identity of the translator have been conceptualised and criticised from the positions of language and translation ecology and didactics of translation Cronin, ; Dizdar Several of these chapters employ the methodology that has lately received—as Venuti 6 points out—less scholarly attention, namely close reading of translations. Michael Cronin addresses a paradox in the economy of attention Gamboni with respect to translation: while translation plays a central role in facilitating information flow between linguistically diverse locales, it seldom elicits appropriate attention itself.
Translation and Identity 11 language and translation as a threat to linguistic ecosystems and proposes an ecology of translational attention that would seek recovering Language Commons—the linguistic resources that should be preserved for future generations. Instead of turning attention to individual domains of translation such as literary translation, technical translation, localisation, etc.
Depleting Language Commons may thus deprive future generations of opportunities to acquire diverse individual and group identities. Post-Soviet Ukrainian identities can be glimpsed in what she terms as farcical translations of Yurii Andrukhovych and Oleksa Nehrebetsky, who markedly shift allusions of the source texts in their translations and through this deconstruct the remnants of Soviet identity in the general Ukrainian public.
Translation thus becomes a powerful deliberate political action which propels establishing of an alternative cultural trend with travesty Chat with older women Kolompos a basic model of self-identification in postsocialist, postcolonial Ukraine. Her cultural approach is based on grasping and contextualising the norms and political circumstances governing individual phases in the translational import of Hispanic American fiction into Slovak cultural space.
This diachronic curve is modelled as a gradual near- creation of the field of magic realism with elements of magic realism also entering the works of Slovak writers in the era of prescribed socialist realism and its rather abrupt dissolution caused by developments in source literatures and the radical change of political and economic situation in the target context. Her in-depth analysis of cultural, political, and economic circumstances of Slovak cultural space, publishing policies and texts—translations, paratexts and archives—also draws a picture of the model of the identity of Hispanic American literature as created by the agents and audiences in the target context.
Miko defined the experiential complex as the unity of experience ideas, thoughts, feelings, interests, and stimuli that forms the basis of communication, i. He also questions the narrowly understood socialisation of translators and calls for a more complex and reflexive approach which would enable translators to make more responsible decisions. The Slovak translation to a great extent normalised and erased the hybrid identity of the immigrants—not only the English-Slovak linguistic identity of the migrants and the text, but also that of the mixed vernacular they Chat with older women Kolompos from their home.
This might have partly resulted from a conscious strategy of the agents involved in the translation and publishing at that time to build a model national literary language. However, the inconsistencies in some cases, hybridity is added to places where the source text did not indicate any in translation of linguistic hybridity also partly sprang from underdeveloped models of translation of this kind of text.
Given the geopolitical positions of both Quebec and Slovakia, it might be quite surprising that it was published only 4 years after the original, some 30 years before the translation in the closest larger cultural space the Czech translation was published in Her findings show that the agents in the Slovak cultural space the translator and the publishing house were not interested in recreating the hybrid identity in the translation—their focus was probably more on the events forming the identity of the female protagonist economic struggle, romantic involvement, etc.
References Bassnett, Susan. Bourdieu, Pierre. Gisele Sapiro. Poetics Today 12 4 : The Rules of Art. Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Susan Emanuel. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Practical Reason. On the Theory of Action. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge. Chamberlain, Lori. Collier, Gordon. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Cronin, Michael. Accessed February 6, Translation and Identity. London and New York: Routledge. Translation in the Digital Age. Translation and Ecology in the Age of the Anthropocene. Delisle, Jean. Delisle, Jean and Judith Woodsworth. Translators through History. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Dizdar, Dilek. Erikson, Erik H. Even-Zohar, Itamar. Flotow, Luise von. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.
Foucault, Michel. The Order of Things. An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Random House. Frawley, William. London: Routledge. For a multidisciplinary history of illusion], ed. Godard, Barbara. Gounavic, Jean-Marc. Donald Bruce. The Translator 3 2 : Graham, Joseph F.
Difference in Translation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Harvey, Keith.Chat with older women Kolompos
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